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Given:

p0 = static ambient pressure
t0 = static ambient temperaturem = air mass flow
Vv = True Air Speed
Vj = jet efflux (exhaust) velocity
pj = jet efflux (exhaust)
static pressure tj = jet efflux (exhaust)
static temperature A = exhaust cross-sectional area

The thrust T of a jet engine is:

  • A
    T = m (Vj -Vv ) + A (pj – p0).
  • B
    T = m (Vv - Vj ) + A (pj – p0).
  • C
    T = m (Vj – Vv ) + A (tj – t0).
  • D
    T = m (Vv - Vj ) + A (tj - t0).
The engine’s net thrust can be:
Thrust = M x (Vjet – Vflight) + A (p – Po)


M – mass of the air
Vjet – exhaust nozzle gas velocity
Vflight – forward speed of the aircraft (=TAS)
A – nozzle area
P – nozzle static pressure
Po – ambient static pressure

Caution! The pressure P and Po need to be expressed in Pa (pascal). Make sure you convert the values before making your calculation.

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