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An aircraft that encounters certain meteorological phenomena in flight must make a special report. Which of the following must be reported?
  • A
    An isolated thunderstorm seen close to track.
  • B
    Light icing experienced by the aircraft.
  • C
    A heavy sandstorm seen some distance from track.
  • D
    Light turbulence experienced by the aircraft.

ICAO Doc 4444
4.12 REPORTING OF OPERATIONAL AND METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION
4.12.1 General

4.12.1.1 When operational and/or routine meteorological information is to be reported, using data link, by an aircraft en route at times where position reports are required in accordance with 4.11.1.1 and 4.11.1.2, the position report shall be given in accordance with 4.11.5.2 (requirements concerning transmission of meteorological information from ADS-C equipped aircraft), or in the form of a routine air-report. Special aircraft observations shall be reported as special air-reports. All air-reports shall be reported as soon as is practicable.4.12.3 Contents of special air-reports
4.12.3.1 Special air-reports shall be made by all aircraft whenever the following conditions are encountered or observed:

a) moderate or severe turbulence; or
b) moderate or severe icing; or
c) severe mountain wave; or
d) thunderstorms, without hail that are obscured, embedded, widespread or in squall lines; or
e) thunderstorms, with hail that are obscured, embedded, widespread or in squall lines; or
f) heavy duststorm or heavy sandstorm; or
g) volcanic ash cloud; or

h) pre-eruption volcanic activity or a volcanic eruption.

Note.— Pre-eruption volcanic activity in this context means unusual and/or increasing volcanic activity which could presage a volcanic eruption. In addition, in the case of transonic and supersonic flight:

i) moderate turbulence; or
j) hail; or
k) cumulonimbus clouds.

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