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What degree of turbulence, if any, is likely to be encountered while flying through a cold front in the summer over Central Europe at FL 100?
  • A
    Moderate turbulence in NS cloud.
  • B
    Light turbulence in CB cloud.
  • C
    Light turbulence in ST cloud.
  • D
    Severe turbulence in CB cloud.

Typical cloud types for a cold front are CU and CBs. We can also find AC or AS clouds at medium levels, typically spreading as a solid layer in the cold sector behind the main frontal clouds (CBs). The convective activity typical over land during hot summer days will also boost the formation of CBs with great vertical development.

CUMULONIMBUS (CB)

Description great vertical extent development
Associated Weather Thunderstorms, heavy showers, lightning and hail.
Turbulence Severe in and below the cloud.
Icing Severe clear ice possible.
General Most dangerous cloud to the aviator

  • In stratus (ST) clouds we can expect light or no turbulence at all.
  • Stratus (ST) and nimbostratus (NS) are not typically associated with cold fronts.

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