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The process by which EM-energy is taken up by the atmosphere is called:
  • A
    refraction
  • B
    interference
  • C
    diffraction
  • D
    absorption

Key words in this question are ‘taken up by the atmosphere’.
EM-energy means Electro-Magnetic energy and it refers to waves of the electromagnetic field, propagating(radiating) through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

Electromagnetic radiation travels in wave packets known as photons that consists of propagating electric and magnetic fields.
These photons undergo absorption when they transfer energy to atoms within a substance they are striking instead of transmitting through or reflecting off of it.

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