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Errors caused by the effect of coastal refraction on bearings at lower altitudes are maximum when the NDB is..
  • A
    near the coast and the bearing crosses the coast at an acute angle.
  • B
    inland and the bearing crosses the coast at right angles.
  • C
    near the coast and the bearing crosses the coast at right angles.
  • D
    inland and the bearing crosses the coast at an acute angle.

The effect of coastal refraction can be minimized by flying higher.
Naturally when flying lower, the coastal refraction experienced will be worse.

Radio waves speed up over water, causing the wave front to bend away from its normal path and pull it towards the coast.

Coastal refraction is negligible when the aircraft is perpendicular (90°) to the coast. The coastal refraction increases as the angle to which the aircraft cuts the shoreline decreases.

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