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Complete the following statement:

During an approach with thunderstorms in the vicinity, the pilot notices that the visibility has dropped below minimum. This is a/an (1)__ and it can be (2)__ by a proper briefing.

  • A

    (1) Threat; (2) prevented.

  • B
    (1) Error; (2) predicted.
  • C

    (1) Error; (2) prevented.

  • D
    (1) Threat; (2) predicted.

The components of the TEM model

There are three basic components in the TEM model, from the perspective of flight crews: threats, errors and undesired aircraft states.
  • Threats are defined as “events or errors that occur beyond the influence of the flight crew, increase operational complexity, and which must be managed to maintain the margins of safety”.
  • Errors are defined “actions or inactions by the flight crew that lead to deviations from organizational or flight crew intentions or expectations”.

The occurence of a thunderstorm cannot be influenced by the flight crew, therefore according to the TEM model, it is a threat. Some threats can be anticipated/predicted, since they are expected or known to the flight crew. Flight crews can anticipate the consequences of a thunderstorm by briefing their response in advance, or prepare for a congested airport by making sure they keep a watchful eye for other aircraft as they execute the approach.

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