19 / 20

Refer to figure.
To which aerodrome is the following TAF most applicable?

TAF 230900Z 2310/2319 24014KT 6000 SCT030 BKN100 TEMPO 2311/2313 25020G38KT 2500 +TSRA SCT008 BKN025CB BECMG 2313/2315 28012KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO 2315/2317 4000 SHRA BKN020 BECMG 2317/2319 9999 SCT030=

  • A

    Aerodrome “H”

  • B

    Aerodrome “G”

  • C

    Aerodrome “J”

  • D

    Aerodrome “B”

Refer to figures.

TAF 230900Z 2310/2319 24014KT 6000 SCT030 BKN100 TEMPO 2311/2313 25020G38KT 2500 +TSRA SCT008 BKN025CB BECMG 2313/2315 28012KT 9999 SCT025 TEMPO 2315/2317 4000 SHRA BKN020 BECMG 2317/2319 9999 SCT030=

Period of validity is stated as 10:00 UTC until 19:00 UTC day 23 (2310/2319).
Initial weather conditions are forecasted to be:

  • 24014KT = wind 240º at 14 kt
  • 6000 = visibility 6000 m
  • SCT030 = scattered clouds at 3000 ft
  • BKN100 = broken clouds at 10000 ft

=> The above describes typical conditions ahead of a cold front: SW winds, broken clouds


Next changes expected are of temporary character (TEMPO 2311/2313) => which means that the listed conditions can occur on day 23 at any time between 11:00 and 13:00 UTC, but are not of permanent character and may occur momentarily, for a max of 1h at each time. Thereafter, the conditions will revert back to how they were previously.

  • 25020G38KT = wind 250º 20 kt gusting to a maximum of 38 kt
  • 2500 = visibility 2500 m
  • +TSRA = heavy rain and thunderstorms
  • SCT008 = scattered clouds at 800 ft
  • BKN025CB = broken clouds at 2500 ft and cumulonimbus

=> The above describes typical conditions at a cold front: gusty conditions, heavy rain and thunderstorms, SW winds and broken layer of clouds with Cumulonimbus.


A change of permanent character is expected to occur next on day 23 at any time between 13:00 and 15:00 (BECMG 2313/2315). After the change occurs, the following conditions are to be expected:

  • 28012KT = wind 280º at 12 kt
  • 9999 = visibility 10 km or more
  • SCT025 = scattered clouds at 2500 ft
  • SCT100 = scattered clouds at 10000 ft

=> The above describes typical conditions behind a cold front: winds veer and speed decreases, cloud base are lifting, good visibility.


Next changes expected are of temporary character (TEMPO 2315/2317) => which means that the listed conditions can occur on day 23 at any time between 15:00 and 17:00 UTC, but are not of permanent character and may occur momentarily, for a max of 1h at each time. Thereafter, the conditions will revert back to how they were previously.

  • 4000 = visibility 4000 m
  • SHRA = moderate showers of rain
  • BKN020 = broken clouds at 2000 ft

A change of permanent character is expected to occur next on day 23 at any time between 17:00 and 19:00 (BECMG 2317/2319). After the change occurs, the following conditions are to be expected:

  • 9999 = visibility 10 km or more
  • SCT030 = scattered clouds at 3000 ft

=> We can conclude that the passage of a Cold Front is being described in this TAF. Note that this chart is valid for 1200 UTC. At 1200 UTC, as we have discussed, the cold front will be overhead. The only airport located at a Cold front at 1200 UTC is LOWW.

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